Which personal style should managers adopt to ensure success? What is the most effective approach to managing the work of subordinates? These questions have been extensively researched and debated over century, and while the general consensus has moved away from ‘command and control’ to management and leadership towards more consultative and participative approaches, there is no single ideal, as the best approach may vary according to circumstances and individual characteristics (CMI 2013).
There is a lot of misunderstanding about the connection between leadership and management. Several people use the terms interchangeably whereas as others see them as different (Council 2011). Many articles propose that leadership and management are dissimilar but suggest inappropriate reasons, such as: leadership inspires, management plans; leaders ask queries, managers give instructions; etc. Nevertheless, the qualities frequently attributed to leadership can likewise apply to managers (Alliance 2012).
- Leadership is setting a new direction or vision for a group that they follow, i.e. a leader is the spearhead for that new direction. WHERE Management is to controls or directs people/resources in a group according to principles or values that have been established.
For many years, there have being researches on leadership and management theories. With the theories, they have helped to better understand the differences and similarities of leadership and management.
Leadership theories are divided into four groups. Behavioural theories focus on a leader’s activities, such as whether to take a authoritarian or a team effort method to achieving organizational purposes. Contingency theories emphasis on the situation rather than the leading by predicting the leadership style that works best for the issue at hand. Trait theories claim that leaders share mutual characteristics and personal characteristics that form the basis of leadership. Power and influence theories observe several ways leaders use inspire and authority to get outcomes (Grace 2014).
Douglas McGregor a social psychologist explained X and Y management theory where Theory X adopts the strict view that people usually dislike working so they must be forced to work with punishment looming as the result for failing to meet the objective. It further explains that employees in fact prefer to be directed and lack drive. Theory Y adopts the participative management style, which functions on the evidence employees are intrinsically motivated to work if they find work satisfying. Giving employees a pleasant working environment, a leader makes it potential for them to learn new things, be creative, take accountability and become fruitful (Grace 2014).
Are there any similarities or differences between Management & Leadership??
- Both management and leadership concentrate on achieving the same goals of the organisation even though they do it differently.
- They work with integrity and respect the employees work and achievements
- Both of them work with discipline and ethics with the employees. They train workers to obey rules or a code of behaviour.
- Lastly they are heard accountable for the results of their teams or overall work performance of the employees.
The most effective approach to managing the work of subordinates
In my point of views the most effective approach to managing the work of subordinates is the contingency approach to leadership whereby personality and individual make up predict patterns of leadership and responses to given situations over time. Contingency approach is beneficial to organisations because of the potential for learning from specific situations and using these lessons to influence future management of the same or similar situations. The ability to adapt to external pressures and changes is also an advantage. Contingency approach may also produce more experienced leaders who are able to develop their skills in multiple areas (Vonderach 2014).
CMI stated in 2013; “There is no single ideal, as the best approach may vary according to circumstances and individual characteristics.
I agree to the statement made by CMI, The contingency theory stresses the significance of both the leader’s character and the situation in which that leader functions. Fiedler studied leaders in a range of contexts but regularly in military setting (Virkus 2009). They outline two styles of leadership:
- Task motivated
- Relationship motivated.
Task refers to task accomplishment, and relationship motivation refers to interpersonal relationships.
Fiedler measurements showed; the leaders scoring high on this scale are relationship motivated and those scoring low are tasking motivated. Essential to contingency theory is concept of the situation, which is categorized by three features:
- Leader-member relations – related to overall atmosphere of the individual and the feelings such as belief, trustworthiness and self-confidence that the group has for its leader.
- Task structure – is associated to task clarity and the means to task accomplishment.
- The position power – relates to the amount of reward-punishment authority the leader has over members of the group
Examples of successful Leaders
Nelson Mandela was the first democratically elected President of South Africa. He was the leader and the face of the Anti- Apartheid movement and all through his life, he relentlessly fought against racial discrimination. For his actions, he served a long prison sentence but even that did not deter him. He came out as a hero and led the country into a free, equal future. His determination, focus and will-power were tremendous that even after serving almost 30 years in jail, he got out and worked again for what was right (Samat 2014).
Angela Ahrendts is a huge advocate of the power of positive energy and the benefits of team working. She believes in leading by example and being a role model for the values of an organisation. For example, she openly attributes much of Burberry’s success to chief creative officer Christopher Bailey, who will take over her CEO role. She believes in “over-communicating consistently” to create a united team around a shared goal and humility (Little 2013).
Alliance, A. (2012) Leadership And Management.
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Council, C. (2011) ‘Leadership And Management’. Cornwall Council
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Grace, N. (2014) The Theory & Practice Of Leadership And Management Styles [online] available from <http://smallbusiness.chron.com/theory-practice-leadership-management-styles-34147.html> [6 September 2014]
Little, N. (2013) What Will Burberry CEO Angela Ahrendts Bring To Apple? [online] available from <http://www.theguardian.com/women-in-leadership/2013/oct/18/angela-ahrendts-burberry-apple> [7 September 2014]
Samat, S. (2014) Top 15 Greatest Leaders Of All Time – Listovative [online] available from <http://listovative.com/top-15-greatest-history-leaders-of-all-time/> [7 September 2014]
Sedlacek, H., Sapienza, A. and Eid, V. (n.d.) ‘Leadership And Management’. Ways to Successful Strategies in Drug Research and Development 127—143
Virkus, S. (2009) Contingency Theory [online] available from <http://www.tlu.ee/~sirvir/IKM/Leadership%20Models/contingency_theory.html> [7 September 2014]
Vonderach, E. (2014) Contingency Approach Of Management: Definition, Example & Quiz Video – Lesson And Example | Education Portal [online] available from <http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/contingency-approach-of-management-definition-example-quiz.html#lesson> [7 September 2014]