Leadership & Change

1-change4iStock_000013075147SmallChange is nothing new and a simple fact of life. Some people actively thrive on new challenges and constant change, while others prefer the comfort of the status quo and strongly resist any change. It is all down to the personality of the individual and there is little management can do about resistance to change (Mullins 2010: 753).

Change is unavoidable in modern businesses. Change within organizations and markets can be driven by a number of factors, such as technological innovation, a changing legal environment, or evolving consumer tastes. it is important to garner buy-in from managers and front line employees in order to maximize the effectiveness of the change and the change process itself. Unfortunately this is not always easy to achieve. While some people in your organization are likely to welcome the change, most times there are at least a handful of key employees who will resist it. In this way, change can increase the productivity and satisfaction of some employees, while reducing the productivity and satisfaction of others.

Strategy-leadership-change_one-process9“Human beings have a habit of resisting change, even after change signifies development and growth. Why do employees resist change?

This is because of the fear of the unknown. That is, they feel worry about how the change will influence them with their job performance as well as their connection with other workers. A slight amount of nervousness is to be anticipated from many individuals when the status quo changes, purely since individuals need time to regulate their thinking, performance and social interactions to any changes.

Hence, opposition to change is unavoidable, managers must take into consideration to resistance as they plan to implement.

To effectively manage change, managers must recognize why a worker’s first response to a new proposal, for instance uneasiness and fear of the unknown, occasionally quickens into more unhelpful actions like decreased job performance. There is a lot management could do;

  • Management should be responsible to give advance information about the change
  • Management should entirely update affected staffs of the whys and wherefores behind the change.
  • Management should be there to clarify workers’ questions in relation to the changes.
  • Management must provide workers time to replicate on how the suggested change impacts them, the organization and their customers.

Manger’s roles to ensure change progresses

  • Understanding Change


Using the Lewin’s change management Model   which explains how you usually have to “breakdown” the present state of things in order to make improvements.

  • Planning Change


To make the changes McKinsey 7S Framework a famous tool which helps manager to understand the relationship between seven “hard” and “soft” aspects of organizations.

  • Implementing Change


With the Training Needs Assessment, management can use it to guaranteeing that the right individuals are given the right training at the right time.

  • Communicating Change


Stakeholder Analysis, this is a formal method management can use for categorizing, prioritizing and understanding the job’s stakeholders.

Change Management Models Managers should adapt..


Change management can be applied in many ways including the above mentioned but the one of the best model managers should apply would be Kotter’s 8-Step Change Model. This is the core set of change management actions that are essential to be done to influence change and make it stick in the long term.

BA-logoIn 1981, British Airways brought on board a new chair. When this chairperson started, he observed and realised the corporation was very ineffective in addition it was wasting a lot of valued resources. To make the company more productive, he chose to rebuild the whole organisation. He understood that the most ideal approach to do this was through a change management plan. Deliberately, the organization started reducing its workforce. In any case, before this was carried out, through his change management leadership, the chairman gave the organization the explanations behind the rebuilding and privatization of the organization to equip them for the approaching change. In this way, through leadership and communication, he engaged his organisation through a tough time that could have been awful without influential change management resistance communication (Faucheux 2013).


executive-professional-resume-writer-picIn 2007 Mike Green implied that useless management approaches can result to resistance to change to go faster. Studies have shown the need for corrective management action, such as providing sufficient information about transformation and being more open to employees with uncertainties. Managers must moreover tie the change to better patron service and ought to continually work to make a climate where the workforce are encouraged to learn innovative ideas and try them out (Green 2007).


Faucheux, M. (2013) Three Examples Of Successful Change Management Practices [online] available from <http://www.brighthubpm.com/change-management/55056-examples-of-change-management-plans-that-worked/&gt; [18 September 2014]

Green, M. (2007) Change Management Masterclass. 1st edn. London: Kogan Page

Ingram, D. (2014) What Are The Pros And Cons Of Change In A Business? [online] available from <http://smallbusiness.chron.com/pros-cons-change-business-433.html&gt; [18 September 2014]

Tools, M. (2014) Change Management: Making Organization Change Happen Effectively [online] available from <http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newPPM_87.htm&gt; [18 September 2014]


The leader in ME…

what type of leader are you? And how ready are you to lead others?


As I develop my leadership skills, I have faced some challenges and as well as get to know myself better through the challenges and a few questions always pop in to my head. What type of a leader am I? What leadership styles work best for me and people I lead?”

What type of leader am I?

Effective leaders are capable of inspiration others. Successful leaders are capable to achieve connections with others and create positive results. There are many types of Leaders but I have found it supportive to classify leaders into the following four types: Thought leaders, Inspirational leaders, Servant leaders, Courageous leaders (Magazine 2013). All these types of leaders achieve the same goals but do it differently.

Which type AM I?

From the experiences I have had working with different teams most of them being very diverse I have come to learn that I am a servant leader. Working with different people with different views and ways of doing things can be very stressful and challenging but as a servant spirited leader I managed and work very well with teams and achieve good results.

  • Servant Leaders


These are leader who care sincerely about individuals. They look for to eliminate the obstacles and problems that hold others back from accomplishing their full potential. Once in a team I had to struggle to make a situation in which the team can do their best work so as we could accomplish the work on time. As a servant leader I believe and lead using the Transformational leadership style (legacee 2014)

transformational_leadershipThis leadership style hinge on high levels of communication from leaders to meet objectives. As a leader in my team I sometimes had to motivate team members and enhance output and results through communication (Johnson 2014).


  • Max DePree


He was the CEO of Herman Miller office furniture corporation in 1980 till 1987. Max once stated, “The first responsibility of a leader is to define reality. The last is to say ‘thank you.’ In between, the leader is a servant.” As a leader he inspires me because of his believes of organisational. Max encouraged and compensated employee contribution.  Additionally he built work environment based on the grounds of trust and honesty. Throughout his leadership he understood that the private/public separation really did not mirror the person he wanted to be. He was the same man whether he was in board meetings, consulting or speaking in private (Beaton 2011).


Feedback from colleagues

Working in a team has played major role in helping me discover my leadership skills as well as my weaknesses. Strength and weaknesses were pointed out during team work and through them I am learning how to become a better leader today. For instance working in a team as a leader I have had a tendency of forgetting to appreciate and praise each team player which was sought of a  weakness as praising motivates people, also sometimes as a follower I felt happy when my work was praised. Moreover team members add on the fact I should build-up my confidence and communication skills to become a good leader as it is well known good leadership starts from communication and confidence. I learnt a lot more about my strengths which made me realise that I am a servant leader and motivator. My biggest strength so far is the ability to give team members support and application, I help and support decision other people make especially when I know that we as a team were on the right track of things. Furthermore I learnt that sincerity and honesty is a good strength as a leader, even when I did not realize it was a good thing it helped the team members as we worked together. Lastly another good feedback was the fact that I had good collaboration skills. All in all with a strong team I was in we all had a chance to learn so much and improve on the leadership skills for the best.great-leader

Areas of development to become a better LEADER

To guarantee my success to become a confident good leader there are a few more skills that I need to develop. The skills will help me when dealing with diverse groups of people; they will also help me to be more ethical and are particularly suitable to times of transformation and challenge. Throughout my course I will need to develop Strategic Thinking, Communication skills, Coaching and management skills. There are many other skills to be developed but step by step all will come into place.


Beaton, C. (2011) Why Max De Pree? | Max De Pree Center For Leadership [online] available from <http://depree.org/why-max-de-pree/&gt; [20 September 2014]

Johnson, R. (2014) 5 Different Types Of Leadership Styles [online] available from <http://smallbusiness.chron.com/5-different-types-leadership-styles-17584.html&gt; [9 September 2014]

legacee, (2014) Types Of Leadership Styles [online] available from <http://www.legacee.com/types-of-leadership-styles/&gt; [20 September 2014]

Magazine, T. (2013) Four Types Of Leaders [online] available from <http://www.trainingmag.com/four-types-leaders&gt; [12 September 2014]

Leadership & Management Styles & approaches

Which personal style should managers adopt to ensure success? What is the most effective approach to managing the work of subordinates? These questions have been extensively researched and debated over century, and while the general consensus has moved away from ‘command and control’ to management and leadership towards more consultative and participative approaches, there is no single ideal, as the best approach may vary according to circumstances and individual characteristics (CMI 2013).

Leadership_Skills_vs_Management-_SkillsThere is a lot of misunderstanding about the connection between leadership and management. Several people use the terms interchangeably whereas as others see them as different (Council 2011). Many articles propose that leadership and management are dissimilar but suggest inappropriate reasons, such as: leadership inspires, management plans; leaders ask queries, managers give instructions; etc. Nevertheless, the qualities frequently attributed to leadership can likewise apply to managers (Alliance 2012).

  • Leadership is setting a new direction or vision for a group that they follow, i.e. a leader is the spearhead for that new direction. WHERE Management is to controls or directs people/resources in a group according to principles or values that have been established.

For many years, there have being researches on leadership and management theories. With the theories, they have helped to better understand the differences and similarities of leadership and management.

leadership      Leadership Theories

Leadership theories are divided into four groups. Behavioural theories focus on a leader’s activities, such as whether to take a authoritarian or a team effort method to achieving organizational purposes. Contingency theories emphasis on the situation rather than the leading by predicting the leadership style that works best for the issue at hand. Trait theories claim that leaders share mutual characteristics and personal characteristics that form the basis of leadership. Power and influence theories observe several ways leaders use inspire and authority to get outcomes (Grace 2014).

management-word-cloud-19209387          Theory X-Y

Douglas McGregor a social psychologist explained X and Y management theory where Theory X adopts the strict view that people usually dislike working so they must be forced to work with punishment looming as the result for failing to meet the objective. It further explains that employees in fact prefer to be directed and lack drive. Theory Y adopts the participative management style, which functions on the evidence employees are intrinsically motivated to work if they find work satisfying. Giving employees a pleasant working environment, a leader makes it potential for them to learn new things, be creative, take accountability and become fruitful (Grace 2014).

Are there any similarities or  differences between Management & Leadership??


  • wheel-management-leadLeadership-and-ManagementBoth management and leadership concentrate on achieving the same goals of the organisation even though they do it differently.
  • They work with integrity and respect the employees work and achievements
  • Both of them work with discipline and ethics with the employees. They train workers to obey rules or a code of behaviour.
  • Lastly they are heard accountable for the results of their teams or overall work performance of the employees.


CE Leadership vs Managementleadership_quiz (1)











The most effective approach to managing the work of subordinates

Leadership-VideoIn my point of views the most effective approach to managing the work of subordinates is the contingency approach to leadership whereby personality and individual make up predict patterns of leadership and responses to given situations over time. Contingency approach is beneficial to organisations because of the potential for learning from specific situations and using these lessons to influence future management of the same or similar situations. The ability to adapt to external pressures and changes is also an advantage. Contingency approach may also produce more experienced leaders who are able to develop their skills in multiple areas (Vonderach 2014).


CMI stated in 2013; “There is no single ideal, as the best approach may vary according to circumstances and individual characteristics.

I agree to the statement made by CMI, The contingency theory stresses the significance of both the leader’s character and the situation in which that leader functions. Fiedler studied leaders in a range of contexts but regularly in military setting (Virkus 2009). They outline two styles of leadership:

  • Task motivated
  • Relationship motivated.

Task refers to task accomplishment, and relationship motivation refers to interpersonal relationships.


Fiedler measurements showed; the leaders scoring high on this scale are relationship motivated and those scoring low are tasking motivated. Essential to contingency theory is concept of the situation, which is categorized by three features:

  • Leader-member relations – related to overall atmosphere of the individual and the feelings such as belief, trustworthiness and self-confidence that the group has for its leader.
  • Task structure – is associated to task clarity and the means to task accomplishment.
  • The position power – relates to the amount of reward-punishment authority the leader has over members of the group

Examples of successful Leaders 

Nelson Mandela

Nelson Mandela was the first democratically elected President of South Africa. He was the leader and the face of the Anti- Apartheid movement and all through his life, he relentlessly fought against racial discrimination. For his actions, he served a long prison sentence but even that did not deter him. He came out as a hero and led the country into a free, equal future. His determination, focus and will-power were tremendous that even after serving almost 30 years in jail, he got out and worked again for what was right (Samat 2014).



Angela Ahrendts is a huge advocate of the power of positive energy and the benefits of team working. She believes in leading by example and being a role model for the values of an organisation. For example, she openly attributes much of Burberry’s success to chief creative officer Christopher Bailey, who will take over her CEO role. She believes in “over-communicating consistently” to create a united team around a shared goal and humility (Little 2013).



Alliance, A. (2012) Leadership And Management.

Cohen, H. (2014) Benefits Of Leadership [online] available from <http://www.leadershipexpert.co.uk/benefits-leadership.html&gt; [5 September 2014]

Council, C. (2011) ‘Leadership And Management’. Cornwall Council

Duggan, T. (2014) How Organization Theories Explain The Dynamic Of The Diverse Workplace [online] available from <http://smallbusiness.chron.com/organization-theories-explain-dynamic-diverse-workplace-16662.html&gt; [1 September 2014]

Grace, N. (2014) The Theory & Practice Of Leadership And Management Styles [online] available from <http://smallbusiness.chron.com/theory-practice-leadership-management-styles-34147.html&gt; [6 September 2014]

Little, N. (2013) What Will Burberry CEO Angela Ahrendts Bring To Apple? [online] available from <http://www.theguardian.com/women-in-leadership/2013/oct/18/angela-ahrendts-burberry-apple&gt; [7 September 2014]

Samat, S. (2014) Top 15 Greatest Leaders Of All Time – Listovative [online] available from <http://listovative.com/top-15-greatest-history-leaders-of-all-time/&gt; [7 September 2014]

Sedlacek, H., Sapienza, A. and Eid, V. (n.d.) ‘Leadership And Management’. Ways to Successful Strategies in Drug Research and Development 127—143

Virkus, S. (2009) Contingency Theory [online] available from <http://www.tlu.ee/~sirvir/IKM/Leadership%20Models/contingency_theory.html&gt; [7 September 2014]

Vonderach, E. (2014) Contingency Approach Of Management: Definition, Example & Quiz Video – Lesson And Example | Education Portal [online] available from <http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/contingency-approach-of-management-definition-example-quiz.html#lesson&gt; [7 September 2014]


Managing Diverse Teams

 “Research has consistently shown that diverse teams produce better results, provided they are well led. The ability to bring together people from different backgrounds, disciplines, cultures, and generations and leverage all they have to offer, therefore, is a must-have for leaders” (Ibarra and Hansen 2011: 71).


Diversity refers to human qualities that are different from our own, Dimensions of diversity include but are not limited to: age, ethnicity, gender, physical abilities / qualities, race, sexual orientation, educational background, geographic location, income, marital status, parental status, religious beliefs, work experience, and job classification (De Anza 2014). With increasing globalisation, many organisations face tougher competition at the same time they are working in a more complex environment.This leads to diverse teams becoming more common at all levels of the organisation(Financial Times 2014).To make a successful diverse teams, organisations are now required to manage diversity. Diversity management refers to the voluntary organizational actions that are designed to create greater inclusion of employees from various backgrounds into the formal and informal organizational structures through deliberate policies and programs.

Advantages and Challenges of Diverse Teams in Organisations


Businesses are recognizing the need and importance of investing in diversity and inclusion as part of their overall talent management practices and to continually challenge their organizations to make the connection between those principles and their corporate performance. For instance using Geert Hofstede’s Dimensions of Culture, it explains how countries or people behave or act differently from others. Now having these people in one organisation working together as a team can sometimes be an issues but if managed well it can be an advantage to the organisation.


  • Advantages

Diverse teams in business potentially result in increased creativity, increased productivity, new attitudes, new language skills, global understanding, new processes, variety of viewpoints and new solutions to difficult problems, (Andrade 2010). For instance Ford Company has been one of the world leaders in workplace diversity and inclusion, which has since remained the key business strategy of the company. Diverse teams are available in every level of the company’s operations, from the boardroom to the design studio, from the plant floors to the engineering centre; their diversity makes them a better and successful company. With this behaviour in their organisation diverse teams and team building has had major advantages to the company.

  •  Challenges

fotolia_9339218_XSAlthough there are so many advantages, there have been a few challenges faced by many organisations when it comes to diverse workplace.communication-barriers Such challenges are; Conflict, Bureaucracy, Unproductive due to dissimilar interests, disunity, forming a structure and guideline for different religious groups, developing solutions and new strategies, it is also a challenge to be fair to all, etc. (Dike 2013).


The ability to manage a diverse team is the most important skill 

Black_Ford_Fiesta_X100_-_008Nowadays, with global businesses resulting to diverse work place, there are many talented people working together. Hence it is very essential for any multinational companies to actually manage diverse teams and make it one of their significant skills. A good example is Ford Company, they realised it needed to strategically and effectively manage the diverse workforce to enable its implementation continue to work to the company’s advantage. Ford therefore recognised some measures, which they thought would retain and also attract new diverse workforce and successful diversity implementation and management.  It is the most important skill for Ford to manage diverse teams as they can deliver what our customers want and more over increase their success. The case for diversity is strong for Ford (Ford 2014).

Managers might use the knowledge of diverse teams to produce better results

Michael Pacanowsky, assistant professor at University of Utah, in 1980 he hypothesised that organisations are very diverse and difficult. To actually understand how a company functions, managers need to observe how the people in the organization act (Duggan 2014). Through observation, managers can exploit the talents of employees and teams to attain strategic objectives more successfully. Managing a diverse work population is a challenge; it is more than simply acknowledging differences in people. With the knowledge of diversity managers now take advantage in recognizing the value of differences, fighting discrimination and encouraging comprehensiveness in which in turn makes employee feel satisfied and belonging in the company and able to work with different teams.


????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????A diverse workforce is a reflection of a changing world and marketplace. Diversity management benefits associates by creating a fair and safe environment where everyone has access to opportunities and challenges. Management tools in a diverse workforce should be used to educate everyone about diversity and its issues, including laws and regulations. Most workplaces are made up of diverse cultures, so organizations need to learn how to adapt to be successful.



Andrade, S. (2010) 6 Advantages Of Workplace Diversity [online] available from <http://saharconsulting.wordpress.com/2010/03/26/6-advantages-of-workplace-diversity/&gt; [27 August 2014]

Brookins, M. (2014) Diversity In The Workplace [online] available from <http://smallbusiness.chron.com/define-diversity-workplace-4926.html&gt; [28 August 2014]

Cipd.co.uk, (2014) Diversity In The Workplace: An Overview – Factsheets – CIPD [online] available from <http://www.cipd.co.uk/hr-resources/factsheets/diversity-workplace-overview.aspx&gt; [28 August 2014]

De Anza, F. (2014) Diversity In The Workplace [online] available from <http://hr.fhda.edu/diversity/&gt; [28 August 2014]

Duggan, T. (2014) How Organization Theories Explain The Dynamic Of The Diverse Workplace [online] available from <http://smallbusiness.chron.com/organization-theories-explain-dynamic-diverse-workplace-16662.html&gt; [1 September 2014]

Financial Times, F. (2014) Diverse Teams Definition From Financial Times Lexicon [online] available from <http://lexicon.ft.com/Term?term=diverse-teams&gt; [28 August 2014]

Kepner, K. and Green, K. (2014) HR022/HR022: Diversity In The Workplace: Benefits, Challenges, And The Required Managerial Tools [online] available from <http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hr022&gt; [26 August 2014]

Silverstein, K. (2013) Enron, Ethics And Today’s Corporate Values [online] available from <http://www.forbes.com/sites/kensilverstein/2013/05/14/enron-ethics-and-todays-corporate-values/&gt; [18 August 2014]


Leadership and Ethics

ethic 1Ethical leadership, defining it as “the demonstration of normatively appropriate conduct through personal actions and interpersonal relationships, and the promotion of such conduct to followers through two-way communication, reinforcement and decision-making”… [And] the evidence suggests that ethical leader behaviour can have important positive effects on both individual and organizational effectiveness (Rubin et al 2010: 216-17).


Companies are now using Ethics to build up strategy and competitive advantage. Nowadays, people/employees can make their voices be heard more powerfully than in the past, as a result ethical leadership is recommended and vital in organisation for achievement (Stewart, 2006). Ethics are the principles, values and beliefs that define what is right and wrong behaviour whereas  Leadership is the process of influencing others to achieve goals, which brings us to ethical leadership which  is the process of influencing people through principles, values and beliefs that embrace what we have defined as right behaviour (Buren, 2013).

ethics-1st-pixMany directors, managers and professional philosophers are certain that ethical leadership is only a matter of leaders having good character, that is having “the right values” or to be a “strong character,” then they are ethical leader setting an example to others. What they think is not true, ethical leadership is far more complex and the risks are much higher (Stewart, 2006).


ethics (1)

Normative ethical systems can be broken down into three theories: Deontological, Teleological and Virtue ethics. The first two are considered action based theories of morality because the attention is completely upon the actions which an individual performs (Derr 2012). When actions are judged morally right based upon their consequences, we have teleological or consequentialist ethical theory. When actions are judged morally right based upon how well they conform to some set of duties, it is Deontological ethical theory (Derr 2012).

ethics picHowever when Deontological and Teleological structures emphasis on the query “What should I do.” Virtue ethics asks an entirely different question: “What sort of person should I be?” Through this comes a virtue-based ethical theory which does not criticise actions as “right or wrong” but rather the charisma of the person doing the actions. The person, in turn, makes moral decisions based upon which actions would make one a good person (About,2014).

HR Managers leading ethics: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=izXuboAZzCM



Today, businesses taking the initiative and making ethical leadership significant will benefit in many ways. There are many ways in which ethical leadership can help organisation to succeed, for instance:

  1. Ethical consumers are growing and increasingly expecting businesses to act/think outside their own advantage as well as to showing concern and care for a broad group of stakeholders(Thornton 2012).
  1. Ethical leadership motivates employee to perform better which usually help organisations participate effectively in today’s global marketplace.
  1. Strong ethical leadership with high trust culture helps organisations attract and maintain the best talented employees. The talented and ethically led employees will attract and satisfy customers which help companies get more done, that way also improving the brand (Thornton 2012).

Amos DanSince Dan took over the wheel at Aflac, profits have grown nearly tenfold. A big percentage of CEOs would use that as reasoning to increase their wages tenfold as well but not Dan Amos. Dan offered to permit shareholders to vote on the executive reward strategy in which it was the first foremost U.S. Corporation to ever do so. He was then awarded the U.S chamber of commerce’s corporate citizenship award. Since then Aflac is widely acknowledged as one of the best American companies to work for, largely due to Amos’ leadership that fosters ethical business practices with social responsibilities. As just one example, he has overseen the donation of $50 million to the Aflac Cancer Center and Blood Disorders Service of Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta. With the great leadership he has:


  • Improved business growth
  • Improved bench strength
  • Improved employee retention
  • Improved bottom-line performance
  • Improved ability to attract talent
  • Solving problems earlier and at lower levels
  • Increased organizational agility
  • Improved business sustainability
  • Greater market value over time

On the other hand Unethical leadership is bad. It may seem to make things a lot more faster and easier but there is always an end to a bad thing.  Unethical leadership can be due to a wide range of things or reasons and is mostly motivated by greediness, money and wanting more than you can have so fast. A good example of of a company would be Enron Corporation.

Unethical Behaviours: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZOk_diECPUw

The Enron scandal, revealed in October 2001, eventually led to the maven_enron_logosbankruptcy.The company’s failure in 2001 represents the biggest business bankruptcy ever while also spotlighting corporate America’s moral failings. It’s a stark reminder of the implications of being seduced by charismatic leaders or more specifically, those who sought excess at the expense of their communities and their employees. In the end, those misplaced morals killed the company while it injured all of those who had gone along for the ride(Silverstein 2013). 

ethical decisionsIn a nutshell, ethics is essential for today’s leaders. Reading, research and watching video related to ethical leadership has highlighted the significance importance of being ethical in business and generally. What many organisation have done and others can do is to ensure that they are ethical leaders creating an ethical organisation (Anon. 2014). HR departments seem to play a crucial role in promoting ethics, as every HRM practice/policy serve as a vehicle to transmit what is considered really important in the organisation.


Anon. (2014) Human Resource Management And Ethical Behaviour: Exploring The Role Of Training In The Spanish Banking Industry. 1 (2), 69-88

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Derr, C. (2012) ‘Ethics And Leadership’. Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics 9 (6), 66–71

Ethisphere. (2014). http://www.google.com. Retrieved July 29, 2014, from http://ethisphere.com/worlds-most-ethical/wme-honorees/.

Johnson, K. (2003). The role of leadership in organisational integrity and five modes of ethical leadership. Leadership and Ethics.

Mickey. (2013, March 6). http://www.google.com. Retrieved July 28, 2014, from http://www.theworkplacecoach.com/the-importance-of-ethical-leadership/.

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Stewart, E. F. (2006). Developing Ethical Leadership. Business Round table Institute for Corporate Ethics.